Due to the deep location of the larynx, the physiological structure is complex, and it can not be seen directly. When the larynx inspection needs to use some special inspection methods. Such as indirect laryngoscope, direct laryngoscope, fiber laryngoscope, electronic laryngoscope, Strobe laryngoscope, ultra-high-speed cinematography, sound picture or glottis.
Indirect laryngoscopy is the most commonly used laryngeal examination method. The indirect laryngoscopy is a sessile circular plane mirror. The mirror surface intersects the mirror handle at 120 degrees. The diameter of the mirror surface is different. An indirect laryngoscopy of the appropriate size should be selected according to the patient's pharyngeal cavity.
At the time of examination, the subject was sitting in a chair, leaning forward, opening his tongue, covering the first third of the tongue with clean gauze, pulling the tongue forward, heating the indirect laryngoscope but placing it in the mouth and pharynx after not burning. The subject took a deep breath and issued a "clothing" sound. Move the root of the tongue forward, lift the epiglottis, illuminate the indirect laryngoscope mirror through the frontal mirror or headlights, and observe the image in the mirror to check the laryngeal structure. When putting in an indirect laryngoscopy, the mirror needs to be faced down and quickly and securely placed 45 degrees with the horizontal plane in the soft palate without touching the tongue, hard palate, and tonsil, so as not to cause nausea and hinder the inspection. If the subject's pharynx reflex is too heavy to cooperate, a little 1 % of the ground card can be sprayed on the pharynx for further examination. Because the mirror is tilted 45 degrees downward, the image of the larynx seen in the mirror and the actual larynx position are reversed and left and right. Due to the limitation of the mirror size of the indirect laryngoscopy, it is not possible to see all the larynx at the same time. Therefore, the mirror should be slowly turned and the larynx should be examined one by one.
This method has the advantages of simplicity, ease of mastery, and small pain in patients. Its limitations include: patients with sensitive pharynx reflex can not tolerate; The laryngeal examination of patients with poor tongue root hypertrophy and epiglottis was unsatisfactory; It is difficult to observe laryngeal lesions in children due to the characteristics of laryngeal anatomy and development.
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