In 1901, Ott, a gynecologist in St. Petersburg, Russia, made a small incision in the anterior abdominal wall, inserted a speculum into the abdominal cavity, and used a head mirror to reflect light into the abdominal cavity. The abdominal cavity was examined and the test was called laparoscopy. . In the same year, Kelling, a German surgeon, inserted a cystoscope into the abdominal cavity of the dog for examination and called this examination a laparoscopic endoscopy. In 1910, the term laparoscopy was used for the first time by Jacobaeus of Stockholm, Sweden. He used a trocar to create a pneumoperitoneum. In 1911, Bernhein, a surgeon at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in the United States, inserted a proctoscope into the abdominal cavity through an incision in the abdominal wall and used light as the light source. In 1924, Stone, a physician in Kansas, United States, inserted a nasal nasopharyngoscope into the abdominal cavity of a dog and recommended a rubber gasket to help seal the puncture cannula to prevent air leakage during operation. In 1938, Veress, a surgeon from Hungary, introduced a gas injection needle that can be safely made into a pneumothorax; when doing a pneumoperitoneum, it can prevent the needle tip from damaging the internal organs under the needle. The idea of making a pneumoperitoneum with a compromised safety puncture needle is generally accepted and used so far. The inventor of the truly targeted abdominal examination was German gastroenterologist Kalk, who invented a lens system that straightly strabismused at 135°. He is considered to be the founder of the German laparoscopy for the diagnosis of liver and gallbladder disease. He first advocated double-cannula needle technique in 1929. In 1972, the American Gynaecologists Laparoscopic Association plans to complete nearly 500,000 abdominal examinations in the next few years. This method has been widely accepted by gynecologists. Nearly a third of gynecologic surgeries at the Cedars-Sniai Medical Center in Los Angeles use diagnostic or therapeutic laparoscopic techniques. In 1986, Cuschieri began an animal experiment for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. At the first World Congress of Endoscopic Surgery in 1988, he reported on a successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy for experimental animals. He was used clinically in February 1989. For the first time in the human body, a successful French surgeon, Philipe Mouret, who had undergone a cholecystectomy with laparoscopy, had successfully performed a cholecystectomy on the same patient while laparoscopically treating gynecological diseases, but it has not been reported. In May 1988, Dubois of Paris was also used clinically on the basis of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for pigs. The results were first published in France and screened at the American Society of Digestive Endoscopy Association's annual meeting in April 1989. The video made a sensation in the world. It first shocked the surgical community in the United States and raised an upsurge of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the United States, which has allowed laparoscopic cholecystectomy to proceed from the animal experiments and clinical exploration stage to the clinical stage. In February 1991, Zhai Zuwu completed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy in China. This is also the first case of laparoscopy in China.
Surgery. Over the past 10 years, China has carried out more than 40 types of laparoscopic surgery, and the number of cases has exceeded 1 million.
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